Weber MA, Schiffrin EL, White WB, Mann S, Lindholm LH, Kenerson JG, et al. Part of Data are denoted as mean ± S.E.M of n = 8 for treatment groups and n = 6 in the control groups. which restored bone structure and strength. Piper sarmentosum Roxb. PubMed  Title:Piper Sarmentosum: A New Hope for the Treatment of Osteoporosis, Author(s):Elvy Suhana Mohd Ramli, Farihah Suhaimi, Fairus Ahmad, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Norazlina Mohamad and Ima Nirwana Soelaiman, Affiliation:Department of Pharmacology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. For example, the polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxide end product is MDA. of South East Asia. In one study, serum LDH is significantly lowered in Gynura Procumbens Extract (500 mg/kg)-treated SHRs [17]. CPK is present in variable tissues that rapidly consume and buffer adenosine triphosphate (ATP), predominantly in the heart [43], brain and skeletal muscle. 6th ed. Circulation. *P < 0.05; compared to positive control, #P < 0.05; compared to negative control group. & Megat Mohd Nordin, N.A. Am J Clinical Nutr. Montezano A, Touyz R. Reactive oxygen species, vascular Noxs, and hypertension: focus on translational and clinical research. [http://www.health.harvard.edu/heart-health/medications-for-treating-hypertension]. Glucocorticoid treatment is the leading cause of secondary osteoporosis. deficiency. Antioxidant is useful in improving cardiovascular diseases particularly hypertension. 10 LEAVES Wild BETEL PIPER Sarmentosum PEPPER LA LOT Herb - RARE PLANT LEAF. PubMed  The world health organization recognizes noncommunicable diseases and raised blood pressure as global health priority for 2025. Serum LDH level in rats treated with Kadukmy™.A = Kadukmy-0.5™, B = Kadukmy-1™, C = Kadukmy-2™. Anat Rec. Hypertension is contributed by the interaction between modifiable and non modifiable risk factors including genetic predisposition, age, gender, high sodium [4] and alcohol intake [5], vitamin D deficiency [6], obesity and physical inactivity [7]. *P < 0.05; compared to positive control, αP < 0.05; compared to baseline, ∞P < 0.05; compared to other treatment groups. Fairus Ahmad, This proved that administration of Kadukmy™ caused increased NO level in SHR that acted as vasoprotective agent against ED and eased vascular relaxation. The benefits of various herbs on the oxidative stress related disorders like DM and atherosclerosis have been well documented. Elvy Suhana Mohd Ramli, Farihah Suhaimi, Fairus Ahmad, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Norazlina Mohamad and Ima Nirwana Soelaiman, “Piper Sarmentosum: A New Hope for the Treatment of Osteoporosis”, Current Drug Targets (2013) 14: 1675. https://doi.org/10.2174/13894501113146660228, Department of Pharmacology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Malaysia, Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery (Discontinued), Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Cancer Agents, Novel Approaches in the Treatment of Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: The Role of Partial Agonists of D2 Dopaminergic Receptors, Tumor Invasion and Oxidative Stress: Biomarkers and Therapeutic Strategies, Multiple Targeting by the Antitumor Drug Tamoxifen: A Structure-Activity Study, Targeted Therapy for Advanced Prostate Cancer: Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway, HDAC as a Therapeutic Target for Treatment of Endometrial Cancers, Treatment of Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer, Vitamin D Receptor is a Novel Drug Target for Ovarian Cancer Treatment, Risk Factors for Node Affectation and Recurrence in Endometrial Cancer, Biomarkers for Cancers in Women: Present Status and Future Perspectives, Cytochrome P450 Structure, Function and Clinical Significance: A Review, Genomic Identification of Potential Targets Unique to Candida albicans for the Discovery of Antifungal Agents, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, a Microbicide Effective Against Enveloped and Nonenveloped Viruses, Molecular Docking: Challenges, Advances and its Use in Drug Discovery Perspective, Targeting c-MET/HGF Signaling Pathway in Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers: Rationale and Progress, Targeting Cancer Stem Cells Pathways for the Effective Treatment of Cancer, Modelling Chemotherapy-induced Cardiotoxicity by Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Receptor Tyrosine Kinases as Therapeutic Targets the Model of the MET Oncogene. 2014;16:624. The papyrus ebers: the greatest Egyptian medical document. This is explained according to La Place’s Law of the heart whereby, the diameter of the arterioles is the most dominant factor that determines the diastolic blood pressure in which the larger the lumen, the lesser the pressure exerted into it [30,31]. At the end of the study, the level of serum NO increased significantly in treatment groups compared to both positive and negative control groups (Figure 5). However, the International Food Information Council Foundation 2012 reported that only 23% of patient obtained controlled blood pressure with medical treatment. 1990;9(6):515–40. Oral administration of Kadukmy™ for 28 days showed a gradual attenuation of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in all treatment groups. EXCLI J. Though its primary purpose is to be used as a mouth freshener, many people also use it for the numerous health benefits that it provides. Osteoporosis is a major global health problem. and 6 normotensive Wistar rats were obtained from Animal Unit of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). Moreover, these nutrients could affect the … High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is also a better method of quantifying of free MDA rather than TBARS methods that detected only MDA bound to TBA which was used in our study. Piper sarmentosum (Daun Kaduk) is commonly used in the local cuisine Data are denoted as mean ± S.E.M of n = 8 for treatment groups and n = 6 in the control groups. Aims: Piper sarmentosum Roxb. This finding was in accordance to the human study that showed serum CPK level was not associated with the control of hypertension [45]. Reactive oxygen species in vascular biology: role in arterial hypertension. 2013;53(3):166. 2001;104(22):2673–8. The cost of conventional treatment is high and together with the adverse effects it leads to noncompliance. Young leaves have a waxy surface. Google Scholar. PubMed Google Scholar. MMZ performed the study, analysed the data and prepared the manuscript. The manufacturer of Kadukmy™ was not involved in the design, funding, implementation or interpretation of the present study. Clinical practice guidelines for management of hypertension. After filtration and heat We even wrap french fries with these leaves and dip in a variety of sauces. strength which leads to an increased risk of fracture. 1993;87(5):1468–74. Baseline blood investigations were done before and following commencement of treatment. PubMed Central  Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. Serum CPK and LDH were determined in serum sample using auto analyser in Pathlab Sdn. Specific cardiovascular biomarkers such as creatine kinase MB (CKMB) and troponin-i and troponin-t are better indicators for hypertension status. Previous research showed that high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) are associated with high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertension in the community: a statement by the American Society of Hypertension and the International Society of Hypertension. 2011;1(2):47–57. Asgary S, Sahebkar A, Afshani MR, Keshvari M, Haghjooyjavanmard S, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Clinical evaluation of blood pressure lowering, endothelial function improving, hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of pomegranate juice in hypertensive subjects. CAS  Thus, it is proven that administration of Kadukmy™ supplementation for 4 weeks has no effect on cardiac tissue injury in SHR. It indicated that Kadukmy™ treated group with Kadukmy-1™ and Kadukmy-2™ were able to reduce oxidative stress levels. The MDA levels reduced significantly in Kadukmy™ treated group Kadukmy-1™ and Kadukmy-2™ mg/kg compared to positive control group and baseline MDA level (Figure 6). Gielen S, Sandri M, Erbs S, Adams V. Exercise-induced modulation of endothelial nitric oxide production. The production of ROS mainly superoxide and free radicals need to be in equilibrium with antioxidant availability in biological systems because oxidative stress refers to a condition when this equilibrium is disturbed. James O, Friday E, Unekwuojo E. Antihypertensive effect of methanol extract of napoleona imperialis (p. beauv) in adrenaline induced hypertensive albino rats. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. In vessel walls, there is an equilibrium between formation of ROS and availability of antioxidant as to protect the blood vessel [10]. Cohen DL, Townsend RR, Angell SY, DiPette DJ. J Clin Biochem Nutr. Special thanks to Prof. Dr. Srijit Das, Assoc. As PS has high antioxidant content [38], in the present study, Kadukmy™ supplementation in SHR reduced the oxidative stress evidenced by significant reduction of MDA formation compared to baseline and control group. It is a hardy perennial which has medicinal and culinary uses. scavenger that may help in the endogenous antioxidant defence system to protect bone against osteoporosis. Wadswoth, Belmont, USA: Yolando Cossioo; 2012. Rodrigo R, González J, Paoletto F. The role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of hypertension. in 2003 showed that SHR demonstrated higher mRNA expression of LDH on the glycolytic pathway in the heart [42]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0565-z, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0565-z. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Article  Share. The use of Piper sarmentosum leaves aqueous extract (Kadukmy™) as antihypertensive agent in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Cite this article. Oral administration of Kadukmy™ showed reduction of total cholesterol level in serum of SHRs in all treated groups. Ten determinations were made in every session of BP measurement and the mean of three values within 10 mmHg was taken as the BP level. Article  The plant belongs to the family Piperaceae and is one of the most extensively used medicinal plants in the Ayurvedic system of medicine, particularly for diseases of respiratory tract. LDH is an enzyme that is found in almost all body tissue and it catalyses the inter conversion of pyruvate to lactate [41] in an anaerobic condition. 1990;19(12):1359–66. Health Benefits of Piper Sarmentosum Is known to be Diuretic in Nature The juice of betel leaves blended with sweetened milk helps in stimulating urination and is also helpful in maintenance of water levels in the body. 2011;34(4):431–40. The cost of conventional treatment is high and together with the adverse effects it leads to noncompliance. In English they're known as piper sarmentosum or "Betel" leaves. Another study showed that the leaf extract of Napoleona imperialis had significantly lowered the CPK level in adrenaline induced hypertensive rat compared to control group [18]. 2013. Thus these myocellular emzymes will leak into the blood in an uncontrolled hypertensive patients [16]. Data are denoted as mean ± S.E.M of n = 8 for treatment groups and n = 6 in the control groups. 2014;16:14–26. strength which leads to an increased risk of fracture. Data are denoted as mean ± S.E.M of n = 8 for treatment groups and n = 6 in the control groups. (11β-HSD1). focused on the therapeutic effect of Ps extract on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats and its protective effects against *P < 0.05; compared to positive control, #P < 0.05; compared to negative control group. Follow. Role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in the abnormal endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation of patients with essential hypertension. Article  Two tests were performed for testing the antioxidant activity of Kadukmy™ throughout the study, and at the end of the study the antioxidant activity of Kadukmy™ were 96.21 ± 0.88% by DPPH radical scavenging and 95.69 ± 0.18% by superoxide scavenging method. scavenger that may help in the endogenous antioxidant defence system to protect bone against osteoporosis. J Med Food. Therefore, Piper sarmentosum (kaduk), a commonly used as a herbal medicine to treat malarial symptoms was screened for antimalarial as well as toxicological activities of their methanol and water leaves extracts. Del Rio D, Stewart A, Pellegrini N. A review of recent studies on malondialdehyde as toxic molecule and biological marker of oxidative stress. FRESH CUT LEAVES ONLY. Picking D, Younger N, Mitchell S, Delgoda R. The prevalence of herbal medicine home use and concomitant use with pharmaceutical medicines in Jamaica. Antioxidant defence mechanism is either by ROS scavenging (vitamins A, E and C, glutathione, ubiquinone, and flavonoids) or by enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) degradation process [10]. In the present study, we also found a very high antioxidant activity in our Kadukmy™ formulation. The discovery of new antimalarial drugs from medicinal plants is urgently needed due to the development of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Antioxid Redox Signal. The activity was found to be 96.21% as compared to Vitamin C and 95.69% by superoxide dismutase scavenging process. Iemitsu M, Miyauchi T, Maeda S. Cardiac hypertrophy by hypertension and exercise training exhibits different gene expression of enzymes in energy metabolism. has a long history of medicinal usage and potential in treating many diseases and ailments. How Piper Sarmentosum is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. In some parts of the world the Piper betle leaves are chewed with the betle nut or used in cooking for their spicy flavour. An immunohistochemical analysis of creatine kinase isoenzyme expression patterns. al study showed that antihypertensive treatments by Gynura procumbens cause reduction in CPK level by 48% [17]. See black pepper for more infor­mation.. However we observed CPK and LDH level in our study. The oestrogen deficient state causes osteoporosis due to enhancement of osteoclastogenesis by oxidative stress which leads to increased bone resorption. Treatment modalities with herbal medicine, less side effects and is cheaper need to be explored.This review The total dietary fiber content of fermented tea leaves was comparable to leaves of Cuminum cyminum, Sesbania grandiflora, Piper sarmentosum, Marsilea crenata, and Leucaena leucocephala at 5.9–7.9 g/100 g FW . The aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (AEPS) was prepared by macerating the leaves with distilled water (1:20) at 80°C for 3 hours. Malondialdehyde is available in serum, food, plasma, tissues and urine as a result of lipid peroxidation and it is the most commonly reported analytes for estimation of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress [39]. BMC Complement Altern Med. This study was conducted to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds of the leaf and fruit extract of P. sarmentosum, as well as Gibler WB, Lewis LM, Erb RE, Makens PK, Kaplan BC, Vaugh RH, et al. *P < 0.05; compared to positive control, αP < 0.05; compared to baseline. Excessive bioavailability of ROS causes oxidative stress phenomena that have been related to the development and advancement of hypertension [8,9]. Latin piper is pro­genitor of almost all names of pepper in con­temporary Euro­pean lan­guages. This plant has been used as a natural remedy for a number of diseases like malaria, toothache, dysentery, cough, flu, pleurisy and lumbago. There was no significant change observed in the negative control group. Springer Nature. Lactate dehydrogenase released into the blood stream affiliates to cardiac tissue damage [13]. PubMed Central  Current Pharmaceutical J. Piper sarmentosum Roxb. Barrett K. Ganong’s review of medical physiology. Google Scholar. The negative control group showed the lowest MDA level and statistically significant compared to positive control group and treated group Kadukmy-0.5™. Kelm M. The L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in hypertension. British J Med and Medical Res. P. sarmentosum is a shade-tolerant, low-growing perennial herb native to Vietnam and elsewhere in Southeast Asia.It is invasive in Hawaii and Pohnpei, where it can smother the ground and compete with agricultural and natural vegetation. Oparil S, Zaman M, Calhoun D. Pathogenesis of hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2003;5(1):80–6. Data are denoted as mean ± S.E.M of n = 8 for treatment groups and n = 6 in the control groups. Heart rate of rats treated with Kadukmy™. Lipids Health Dis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The smaller and milder leaves of Piper sarmentosum are known in Thailand as cha phlu [ ช้าพลู ] … BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine Article  When NO level is increased, vasodilatation takes place and lowers blood pressure. Studies have revealed antioxidant properties through its flavonoids compound naringenin which acts as a superoxide which restored bone structure and strength. 2013. Early detection of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with chest pain and nondiagnostic ECGs: serial CK-MB sampling in the emergency department. Terms and Conditions, 2011;137(1):305–11. 2011;12(9):1357–84. Nasim Habibzadeh MA. However, they did not show significant difference compared to negative control at the third and fifth week of the study (Figures 2, 3). Serum LDH was highest in group Kadukmy-1™ mg/kg. This may cause endothelial dysfunction (ED) that leads to spasm of the blood vessel wall [11]. Department of Pharmacology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Malaysia. Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Maizura Mohd Zainudin, Zaiton Zakaria & Nor Anita Megat Mohd Nordin, Department of Basic Medical Sciences (Physiology), Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia, You can also search for this author in