Tectonic plates not only move land masses (continental crust), but also oceans (ocean crust). Continental drift and plate tectonics are two theories explaining the geological evolution of the earth, specifically its crust. The speed of the plates ranges from a typical 10–40 mm/year (about as fast as fingernails grow) to as fast as 160 mm/year (about as fast as hair grows). The theory of continental drift is most associated with the scientist Alfred Wegener . That continent eventually separated and drifted apart, forming into the seven continents we have today. (n.d.). Continental drift. Those are two different things. The plate tectonics theory is based on the continental drift theory in that it explains how the supercontinent drifted apart into several plates. About 100 years ago, in 1915, Wegener proposed his theory of continental drift. Created by. (2020, January 17). Privacy Policy Terms of Use Accessibility. To understand whether you will get mountains or volcanoes, you need to remember two things. In the Theory of Plate Tectonics, it is tectonic plates, rather than continents, which are moving. Van Andel, T. H. (n.d.). Alfred Wegener was a German scientist. This process formed wrinkles, or mountains, on the Earth’s crust. . It was not until the 1960s that evidence of convection currents within the mantle was discovered to support the theory fully. The structure of the Earth comprises of the crust, mantle, outer core and inner core. They are: There are eight other smaller secondary plates as well as many other microplates which do not make up significant amounts of landmass. Looking at all of the continents he theorized that they had once been joined together as a supercontinent (which was later called Pangaea) around 225 million years ago (see Figure 4). Oceanic plates are denser than continental plates. Explain the concepts of the following hypothesis: continental drift hypothesis, seafloor spreading hypothesis, and the theory of plate tectonics. Tectonic plates are pieces of the lithosphere and crust, which float on the asthenosphere. Today, the theory of continental drift has been replaced by the science of plate tectonics. Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics Author: Steven Dutch Last modified by: Madge Nanney Created Date: 1/18/2001 12:21:04 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Company: UW - Green Bay Other titles He was not the first or only person to think this, but he was the first to talk … Material may push upwards (obduction) forming mountains or downwards (subduction) into the mantle. Continental Drift, Plate Tectonics, and the Bible BY STUART E. NEVINS, M.S. Wegener hypothesized that long ago, there was a supercontinent that consisted of all landmasses on Earth. Let’s look at some of these processes in more detail. According to the theory of continental drift, the world was made up of a single continent through most of geologic time. When this happens, cracks occur in the lithosphere, which allows magma (hot liquid rock) to rise and cool, forming a new seafloor. In 1965, a Canadian geophysicist, J. Tuzo Wilson, combined the continental drift and seafloor spreading hypotheses to propose the theory of plate tectonics. (n.d.). Our tips from experts and exam survivors will help you through. Continental Drift Continental drift is a theory first presented by Abraham Ortelius (Abraham Ortels) in 1596. Earth around 200 million years ago – all the continents are merged into one supercontinent, The continents are separating and moving apart, The continents have reached their current locations. Ms_AutumnGirl2. Continental Drift & Plate Tectonics : STUDY. What was the evidence for Wegener’s theory? Continental drift (plate tectonics) The theory of continental drift was proposed at the beginning of the last century by German scientist Alfred Wegener. Video 1 Continents Adrift An Introduction to Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics It was not until the 1960s that evidence of convection currents within the mantle was discovered to support the theory fully. Continental drift is the idea that continents passively move due to the movement of plate tectonics. He said that all the continents had initially been one big landmass, which he called Pangea. Continental Drift Overview Continental drift is the theory that the Earth's continents have moved over geologic time relative to each other, thus appearing to have "drifted" across the ocean bed. Older supercontinents are also believed to have come before Pangaea. The idea of moving landmasses seems obvious now, but Wegener’s Theory of Continental Drift (as he called it) was not accepted for many years. These plates … The opposite of divergence is convergence. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes can occur and mountains and ocean trenches can be formed when tectonic plates meet. Twenty years ago geologists were certain that the data correlated perfectly with the then-reigning model of stationary continents. The match in shape between the east coast of South America and the west coast of Africa suggests both were once part of a single continent (meaning that the outlines of the continents fit together like a jigsaw). Learn. Though most of … The theories of continental drift and plate tectonics are the foundation of modern geology. Continental Drift Plate Tectonics 1. Wegener suggested that mountains formed when the edge of a drifting continent collided with another, causing it to crumple and fold. This part of the National Geographic Education is about Continental Drift. Well, for one thing, Wegener did not have a convincing explanation for the cause of the drifting (he suggested that the continents were moving around due to the Earth’s rotation, which later turned out to be wrong). This occurs when plates are moving towards each other. Fossils of similar types of plants and animals in rocks of a similar age have been found on the shores of different continents, suggesting that the continents were once joined. Then some ( at the time ) unknown force spilt the super continent into pieces forming the presently observed continents. Convection Current Theory (CCT) Convection current theory forms the basis of SFST and PT. In the early 20th century the prevailing wisdom regarding how mountain belts were formed and why the sea is deep was that the Earth started out as a molten blob and gradually cooled. But geologists soundly denounced Wegener's theory of continental drift after he published the details in a 1915 book called \"The Origin of Continents and Oceans.\" Part of the opposition was because Wegener didn't have a good model to explain how the continents moved apart. What is continental drift? (n.d.). Alfred Wegener, in the first three decades of this century, and DuToit in the 1920s and 1930s gathered evidence that the continents had moved. Write. It explains that the continents drifted apart because of the constant interaction between the earth’s tectonic plates and the heat of the earth’s core. Visit http://www.makemegenius.com for more science videos for kids. Continental Drift & Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics (PT) Plate tectonics is the movement of lithospheric plates relative to each other. Tuzo said that Earth’s crust, or lithosphere, was divided into large, rigid pieces called plates. Himalayan mountains (David Mark, Pixabay). What do mountains and volcanoes have in common? Read about our approach to external linking. It took more than 50 years for Wegener’s theory to be accepted. . C. Is the idea that the continents are slowly drifting further away from each other. Forefront Teaching Resources Ltd, Washington, Tyne and Wear, UK. Alden, A. Scientific isolation Thus did most in the scientific community ridicule the concept that would revolutionize the earth sciences and scorn Alfred Wegener Home Economics: Food and Nutrition (CCEA). Continental Drift and Plate-Tectonics Theory. Wegener thought all the continents were once joined together in an \"Urkontinent\" before breaking up and drifting to their current positions. ‘Continental drift’ is an OBSERVATION: the continental shapes appear to ‘fit’ together fairly well AND the rocks (their types, structures and fossil assemblages) ALSO match up nicely. There are similar patterns of rocks on both sides of the Atlantic. “Wegener’s ‘Continental drift’ meets Wilson’s ‘Plate tectonics’: How Wegener’s continental drift evidence matches up with evidence for plate tectonics” Click to access 91_Wegener.pdf. The solid plates above move along on the liquid rock below. He was not the first or only person to think this, but he was the first to talk about the idea publicly. This means that the sizes and positions of these plates change over time. From Continental Drift to Plate Tectonics. In 1915, the German geologist and meteorologist Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) first proposed the theory of continental drift, which states that parts of the Earth's crust slowly drift atop a liquid core. It took more than 50 years for Wegener’s theory to be accepted. Since the plates are floating on liquid rock, they are constantly moving and bumping against each other. Today, most people know that landmasses on Earth move around, but people haven’t always believed this. This Dynamic Earth – the Story of Plate Tectonics. From Continental Drift to Plate Tectonics, Geology 12 (Learning Outcomes Framework 2015), Learning Outcomes Framework: Science Grade 7 (2014), Experiential Science 10 - Terrestrial Systems, Experiential Science 30 - Freshwater Systems, Earth and Space Science, Grade 12, University (SES4U), The Earth and Space: Geological and Geological phenomena, Earth and Space Science – Earth’s Crust and Resources (EC), Earth Sciences 11 (British Columbia, June 2018, Science Grade 8 (British Columbia, June 2016). 9. One of the reasons was that, it was difficult to work out how whole continents could move. The material lost through subduction is roughly balanced by the formation of new (oceanic) crust by seafloor spreading. Also, fossils of the land reptile Lystrosaurus have been found in rocks of the same age in Africa, India and Antarctica. It was proposed by a German meteorologist and geophysicist named Alfred Wegener . It actually wasn’t changed. A symposium on continental drift was held at the Royal Society of London in 1965 which must be regarded as the official start of the acceptance of plate tectonics by the scientific community, and which abstracts are issued as Blacket, Bullard & Runcorn (1965). They are basically the same theory. Describe the three types of tectonic plate and how the processes lead to changes in Earth’s surface features. The theory of continental drift was proposed at the beginning of the last century by German scientist Alfred Wegener. Why? | SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 01, 1976. The cooling also caused contraction and the pressure produced by contraction caused some parts of the crust to buckle upwards, forming mountains. National Geographic. Tectonic plates are able to move because the lithosphere, which makes up the plates, has a higher strength and lower density than the underlying asthenosphere. There are currently seven plates that make up most of the continents and the Pacific Ocean. The realization that Earth's land masses move was first proposed by Alfred Wegener, which he called continental drift. They are both large, steep landforms made of rock that are formed when tectonic plates are pushed and pulled. This process formed wrinkles, or mountains, on the Earth’s crust. Search for more papers by this author. Geologists came to accept the Theory of Plate Tectonics in the late 1950s and early 1960s after coming to understand the concept of seafloor spreading. One type of evidence that strongly supported the Theory of Continental Drift is the fossil record. For example, the Himalayas formed when India came into contact with Asia. Big Idea: Plate Tectonic Theory explains the consequences of tectonic plate interactions. Continental Drift & Plate TectonicsContinental Drift & Plate Tectonics 2. Gravity. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Before Wegener developed his theory, it was thought that mountains formed because the Earth was cooling down, and, as it cooled down, it contracted. Big Idea: The theory of plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains Earth’s geological processes. When it cooled, heavier metals such as iron sank down and formed the core, while lighter metals such as aluminum stayed up in the crust. Today, most people know that landmasses on Earth move around, but people haven’t always believed this. One piece of evidence Wegener provided was paleoclimatic indicators that linked South America and Africa (Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift). The Continental Drift hypothesis paved the way for the emergence and acceptance of the plate tectonics theory. This slideshow explains Wegener’s theory. Wegener came up with this idea because he noticed that the coasts of western Africa and eastern South America looked like puzzle pieces, which might have once fit together and then drifted apart. States that continents have moved horizontally through the sea floor to thier current locations. How do volcanoes erupt? PLAY. He called this movement Continental Drift. Video showing how convection cells inside the Earth move tectonic plates on the Earth’s surface. Let’s look at how tectonic plates form mountains and volcanoes. This land mass eventually broke up and split to form 7 smaller land masses, which are now the continents we know today. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Evidence for the Continental Drift. Pangaea is not the only supercontinent believed to have existed. He called this movement Continental Drift. Match. He is shown here at the base camp for Johan Koch's 1912 … Test. There are two major types of tectonic plates: oceanic and continental. The Theory of Plate Tectonics builds on Wegener’s Theory of Continental Drift. This online book has a number of different sections about plate tectonics. The crust and upper part of the mantle are broken into tectonic plates. ThoughtCo. Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift Jarðsaga 1 ... believe that so much continental drift could have occurred in so short time. Plate tectonics. Continental drift. Copyright 2019, Let’s Talk Science, All Rights Reserved. Continental Drift Theory (Alfred Wegener, 1922) Plate Tectonics – Breakup of Pangea In it, Wegener said that the continents were not fixed in place. Book Author(s): Michael Leddra. Secondly, he was a meteorologist (someone who studies weather), not a geologist, so geologists didn’t think he knew what he was talking about. United States Geological Survey. Learn about the Theories of Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics and discover what happens when plates collide! It wasn’t until the early 20th century that German scientist Alfred Wegener put forth the idea that the Earth’s continents were drifting. The fossil record supports and gives credence to the theories of continental drift and plate tectonics. The theory of continental drift was proposed at the beginning of the last century by German scientist, Before Wegener developed his theory, it was thought that mountains formed because the Earth was cooling down, and, as it cooled down, it. Introduction & Overview of Continental Drift Hypothesis PowerPoint. Frisch and Meschede and Blakey answer all these questions and more through the presentation and explanation of the geodynamic processes upon which the theory of continental drift is based and which have led to the concept of plate tectonics. We know that this is not the case. This concept was an important precursor to the development of the theory of plate tectonics, which incorporates it. One of the reasons was that it was difficult to work out how whole continents could move. There are similar fossils on both sides of the Atlantic – including the fossil remains of land animals that would have been unable to swim across from one side to the other. The name Pangaea comes from the Ancient Greek words “pan,” meaning entire, and “Gaia,” meaning Earth. Sign in, choose your GCSE subjects and see content that's tailored for you. You may imagine that these plates are zipping along, but in fact, they are moving VERY SLOWLY! Flashcards. Seafloor spreading occurs on the seafloor where oceanic plates are moving away from each other (diverging). It wasn’t until the early 20th century that German scientist Alfred Wegener put forth the idea that the Earth’s continents were drifting. It explains the force behind plate movements. What is subduction? German scientist Alfred Wegener developed the theory of continental drift to explain how mountains were formed. Terms in this set (33) The Continental Drift Theory. Big Idea: The plate tectonic theory explains the changes that occur within Earth and to Earth’s crust throughout geological time. Forefront Teaching Resources Ltd, Washington, Tyne and Wear, UK. These continents are in a state … Continental Drift & Plate Tectonics We are talking this month about Plate Tectonics (which is the modern form of the Continental Drift theory) for three reasons. Spell. Whether you get mountains or volcanoes depends on the type of tectonic plates and where they are colliding. If this was the case, then mountains would be spread evenly over the Earth’s surface. A combination of the seafloor spreading theory and the continental drift theory. He noted that glacial, tropical rain forests, and desert deposits were aligned when the continents were placed together (Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift). Continental drift the older theory and plate tectonics the more modern theory Continental Drift as proposed by Alfred Wegener was theory that all of the continents had once been connected as part of a super continent he called Pangea. Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics Continental Drift. Scientists believe that there were several supercontinents like Pangaea that formed and broke apart over the course of Earth's 4.5-billion year lifespan. For example, fossils of Mesosaurus, a freshwater reptile, have been found both in Brazil and western Africa. Continental drift, large-scale horizontal movement of continents relative to one another and to the ocean basins during one or more episodes of geologic time. Plate tectonics is the theory that Earth's land masses are in constant motion. The crust is broken up into giant tectonic plates that ride atop the magma, hot melted-rock material that makes up much of the interior of the Earth. Information and video (2:36 min.) 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