Oct. 15, 1969: The first Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam, a series of … ... China China's interests in the Vietnam War began in the late 1940's when the communists managed to gain control. Today’s post comes from Madie Ward in the National Archives History Office. The significant impact of the war was that it resulted in the death of a large number of people. Sheehan served as a war correspondent for United Press International and then the New York Times in the early days of US involvement in the Vietnam War in the 1960s. How eight countries got bogged down in the Vietnam War's Cold War proxy battle. The Vietnam War. Cold War tensions ran high as the country relentlessly fought against the alleged evils of communism. On 2 July 1976, North and South Vietnam were merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The United States got involved to prevent South Vietnam from falling into communist hands. The North Vietnamese also came to dominate a communist insurgency against the royalist government of Prince Souvanna Phouma, relegating the local Laotian Communists to what Moise describes as “junior partners.”. However, it’s worth noticing that after China’s ally Khmer Rouge conducted some savage raids along the border between Vietnam and Cambodia during 1975–1978 and Vietnam responded with an invasion that overthrew them, China decided to launch a brief, punitive border invasion of Vietnam in 1979 sometimes known as the Third Indochina War to “teach them a lesson”. FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. The American people did not feel like their government was being held accountable. Nonetheless, during 1972 – 1975, China continued to provide the sinews of modern war that would enable NVA to launch two modern and large-scale offensives against South Vietnam in both 1972 and 1975 which eventually ended the Vietnam War. As the original communist state, the Soviet Union aided North Vietnam, with increasing support in the late 1960s. In December, another Beijing-Hanoi pact was signed granting a series of loans of undetermined amounts to North Vietnam. To conclude, China played an active and crucial role in supporting their communist ally in the Vietnam war the with more than 320,000 Chinese troops stationed in North Vietnam between 1965 and 1971, peaking in 1967 with around 170,000 Chinese in the DRV. The war resulted in the victory of North Vietnam (the communists) over the South Vietnam which means U.S. Had to accept the defeat. Why Were Vietnam War Vets Treated Poorly When They Returned? The DMZ was later established and then followed by invasions, skirmishes terrorist acts and so forth until Australia and US got involved in the 1950's and then all out war followed with the other countries joining in. July 1954: At a conference in Geneva, world … The United States lost the Vietnam War. List of wars involving Vietnam. Also known as the Second Indochina War or simply the American War to the Vietnamese, the epic struggle claimed the lives of more than 2 million people, including some 60,000 U.S. personnel and more than a million civilians. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. And so you can imagine, during World War II, France was quickly overrun by the Germans. The Vietnam War (1955–75) was a time of great controversy in the United States. At the same time, Sino-Vietnamese relationship also soured as Hanoi refused to cut relations with Moscow as per Beijing’s demand as well as disagreement in Paris peace negotiations and particularly U.S. President Nixon’s visit to China in 1972. The death of Stalin in March 1953 and the stabilization of events in Europe drew Moscow’s attention back to Southeast Asia. Despite being in bad economic shape at the time, newly Communist China aided Ho during the war with the French, and did so again during the war with the Americans, providing weapons, expertise, and manpower. The Vietnam War served as a proxy war … Newly communist China had supported Ho Chi Minh during the war with the French, and continued to do so during the war with the U.S. by providing weapons, expertise and manpower. Donate or volunteer today! Vietnam War. For the most part, the Chinese stayed in the background, rebuilding areas destroyed by U.S. bombs and manning anti-aircraft batteries. Ho led the North, whereas the U.S.-backed Ngo Dinh Diem took charge of the South. ... What four presidents were involved in the war. South Korea  was the main U.S. and South Vietnamese partner, contributing more than 300,000 troops to the war. Germany subsequently declared war following Russian cooperation with Serbia. Among other weapons, the USSR provided surface-to-air missiles that the Chinese weren’t yet technologically capable of producing. READ MORE: Why Were Vietnam War Vets Treated Poorly When They Returned? All of these countries were on the anti-communist force. Due to the intervention of the international community, known as Operation Desert Storm, the Gulf War was ended. Yet, no matter what they tried, the Americans never succeeded in seriously disrupting North Vietnamese supply lines, nor did they prevent the fall of Laos to the communists in 1975. It was also an important city that China, the Soviet Union, and other countries supported. The student movement and the antiwar movement. Ho led the North, whereas the U.S.-backed Ngo Dinh Diem took charge of the South. Cambodia, while officially neutral, tolerated communist intrusions—and was bombed by the United States for those intrusions. U.S. officials eventually soured on Diem, tacitly approving a 1963 coup that resulted in his death. China continued to provide military aid and support to North Vietnam years after the first Indochina war. In response to these North Vietnamese transgressions, the Americans covertly rained down billions of pounds of bombs on Laos. 1 Hồng Bàng Dynasty (2879 BC – 257 BC) 2 … In 1966, the reclusive regime dispatched two squadrons of MiG-17s and a squadron of MiG-21s — 30 planes in all. The Vietnam War was fought between communist North Vietnam and the government of Southern Vietnam. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. This was reinforced by a treaty signed during a Hanoi delegation’s visit in Beijing in July 1965 to provide Hanoi enough economic support and necessary equipment for national defense. Unlike during the Korean War, the United States yielded to this threat. When the Second Indochina War, or Vietnam War, as it’s known in the United States, began soon after, France stayed well away. They were seeking to strengthen their ties with France and help stop the spread of communism. While South Korea sent a total of 313,000 soldiers between 1965 and 1973 to South Vietnam, North Korea only sent in a fighter squadron to North Vietnam in early 1967 to back up their air defenses in the city of Hanoi. Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam that is located in the north of the country. South Vietnam was backed by anti-communist countries and members of the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) which included the United States, South Korea, Australia, the Philippines, New Zealand, Thailand, Khmer Republic (later overthrown by Khmer Rouge), Kingdom of Laos and Republic of China (Taiwan). U.S. bombs killed tens of thousands of Cambodians, which, some historians contend, may have increased popular support for the Khmer Rouge, a communist insurgency group that initiated a brutal genocide upon taking power in 1975. By 1972, the idea that Vietnam posed a threat to Cold War America was so discredited, it sometimes sounded as if America’s only remaining war aim was to … There were 6 Free World nations and 2 communist allies that officially sent men and material support to South and North Vietnam respectively. The main countries involved in the Vietnam War were North and South Vietnam. Yet their support for South Vietnam never wavered, no matter who occupied the White House. It wanted no part of the new conflict. South Korea was the main U.S. and South Vietnamese partner, providing over 300,000 troops and suffering some 5,000 deaths. Nonetheless, “if there had been no Chinese or Soviet support, the North Vietnamese could not have won,” he says, pointing out that the U.S. military budget was roughly 30 times greater than the entire gross national product of North Vietnam. Although Moscow belatedly recognized Ho’s government in January 1950, they rejected his request to back North Vietnamese movement for independence against the French. Causes of the Vietnam war. How the Vietnam War Ratcheted Up Under 5 US Presidents. Vietnam Travel. “The French had controlled Vietnam for a couple of generations,” explains Ed Moise, a professor of history at Clemson University and author of Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War. In the aftermath of the World War II, the Soviet Union paid little attention to the communist movement (Viet Minh) in Vietnam who was largely outside Moscow’s sphere of influence. Some countries such as Cuba and Taiwan provided secret supports to their respective allies while others such as Czechoslovakia, East and West Germany although did not officially participate offered military advisors, engineers and doctors in their allies’ forces. The student movement and the antiwar movement. After a while, “no one thinks they’re going to win,” says James McAllister, a political science professor at Williams College, “but they’re damn sure a loss is not going to take place under their watch.”, READ MORE: How the Vietnam War Ratcheted Up Under 5 US Presidents. What Countries Involved in the Vietnam War? In 1971, the Pentagon Papers were leaked, revealing confidential information about the war. During the war with the United States, Giáp would retain his position as one of the chief military commanders in North Vietnam, overseeing the communist insurgency in the South and the activities of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) forces of the North, though these two were admittedly intertwined. © 2012-2021 The Vietnam War. Contents. It was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. While nearly 60,000 Americans lost their lives in the … Nixon then sent troops across the border in 1970, taking advantage of a coup that ousted Sihanouk in favor of a pro-American general. The first troop left for Vietnam in 1964, with large combat battalions arriving the following year. – Part 2. Winston Churchill, and later Harold Wilson, may be thought of as having kept Britain out of Vietnam, but in actual fact, that was only once it had begun to escalate.. THE WAR IN VIETNAM was one of the 20 th Century’s most intractable conflicts. It was part of a larger regional conflict as well as a manifestation of the Cold War. A Cold War-era billboard in Moscow showing bombs raining down on Uncle Sam reading, 'Aggressors out of Vietnam!' Vietnam - Vietnam - The two Vietnams (1954–65): The agreements concluded in Geneva between April and July 1954 (collectively called the Geneva Accords) were signed by French and Viet Minh representatives and provided for a cease-fire and temporary division of the country into two military zones at latitude 17 °N (popularly called the 17th parallel). The Vietnam War was described as a civil war within South Vietnam, although it became a proxy war between Cold War powers. The situation changed dramatically when the Chinese communist won the civil in mainland china in October 1949 and fostered the communist movement further to Asia. May 7, 1954: Ho Chi Minh’s Viet Minh forces defeat the French at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, effectively ending the 7 ½-year Indochina War. jaguar & land rover. But perhaps their biggest role was preemptive: They made it clear that if U.S. ground troops invaded North Vietnam, then they would respond in kind. There were also members of the International Control Commission (ICC) and International Commission of Control and Supervision (ICCS) who albeit supposedly neutral took sides and even offered aid to them such as Poland and Canada. The Soviets wanted to “make life difficult for the United States,” McAllister says, “but they didn’t want to do it in a way that got them in a conflict with the United States.”, Soviet involvement in the war increased in the late 1960s, just as China’s influence was lessening. The U.S involvement in Vietnam had started as early as 1950 when Harry Truman sent military advisors to aid the French. If we take a look on the history of this word when the war is being started, there were number of causes from which the brutality and the economic disasters were major causes that were going through the countries to countries. Japan's involvement in the Vietnam War included the use of bases in Okinawa to use as launching points for the U.S. army. USA. Countries Involved in the Vietnam War: The Vietnam War was an undeclared war fought between North and South Vietnam. in 1968. Republic of Vietnam (1950 "State of Vietnam, AKA South Vietnam) The United Kingdom (members of Allied Control Commission (ACC)), Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), Cambodia (Khmer Republic and Khmer Rouge), Republic of Vietnam ( aka South Vietnam (1955 – 1975) succeeded State of Vietnam (1949 – 1955) ). Here, retired Colonel William C Haponski, co-author of ‘Autopsy of an Unwinnable War: Vietnam’, explains that the British were in fact one of five main players in early post-World War 2 Vietnam. In fact, French President Charles de Gaulle warned his U.S. counterpart, John F. Kennedy Jr., that Vietnam would be a “bottomless military and political swamp.” Though prescient, the advice ultimately went unheeded. South Vietnam was backed by anti-communist countries and members of the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) which included the United States, South Korea, Australia, the Philippines, New Zealand, Thailand, Khmer Republic (later overthrown by Khmer Rouge), Kingdom of Laos and Republic of China (Taiwan). The Chinese interpreted American “aggression” against North Vietnam after the Gulf of Tonkin incident as their own and threatened to militarily intervene in North Vietnam if American forces crossed the DMZ. However, in the years following the war, a vast number of South Vietnamese were sent to re-education campswhere many endured torture, starvation, and disease while being forced to p… The Chinese allowed Soviet materiel across China for the North to prosecute wage the war. In 1964, however, the so-called Gulf of Tonkin incident prompted President Lyndon B. Johnson to commit combat troops and launch a massive bombing campaign, and U.S. involvement only deepened from there. However, the US started direct military action in Vietnam in 1964 until 1973. “They were determined to go on holding it, both as a matter of national pride and because if they let one colony go loose, then the others might get ideas.”. The United States got involved to prevent South Vietnam from falling into communist hands. The 1988 book won the Pulitzer Prize for non-fiction. In 1954, Ho’s forces won a decisive victory at Dien Bien Phu and succeeded in evicting the French once and for all. The main countries involved in the Vietnam War were South Vietnam and North Vietnam.South Vietnam was backed by anti-communist countries and members of the South East Asia Treaty Organization which included the United States, South Korea, Australia, the Philippines, New Zealand, Thailand, Khmer Republic, Kingdom of Laos and Republic of China. Mostly in this world people think that the war is not the batter solution for any kind of dispute, violence and misunderstanding. While the U.S.S.R. supplied some troops, their biggest contribution was in weaponry. Financial aid, along with a desire to curry favor with the United States, drew in additional countries as well. Not wanting to be seen as going it alone, the Johnson administration pressured other countries to join in the Vietnam War, much as George W. Bush would later form a “coalition of the willing” to fight in the Iraq War. Prince Norodom Sihanouk “basically felt that he was surrounded by dangerous enemies, and he had to make nice with some of them,” Moise says, adding that “he could not afford to offend” the North Vietnamese despite being “anti-communist in Cambodian politics.”. The Soviet Union remained indifferent with the conflict in Vietnam in early 1960s under Nikita Khrushchev even after the Gulf of Tonkin incident. By the time American forces finally withdrew in 1973, about 2.7 million U.S. soldiers had served in Vietnam, more than 58,000 had died, and the nation had racked up a staggering bill of at least $111 billion (plus billions more in non-military costs). The countries involved in Vietnam were Republic of Vietnam, United States, Republic of Korea, Australia, Philippines, New Zealand, Thailand, Khmer Republic, and Kingdom of Laos. Automatically reference everything correctly with CiteThisForMe. Since the 19 th century, Vietnam had been under colonial rule. Overall, though, they pumped only about 3,000 troops into the conflict, far fewer than the Chinese. The main reason the United States got involved in Vietnam was the purpose of doing everything possible to keep communism from spreading around world. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China and North Korea, while South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines. Japan mostly served as the repair facilities for U.S. tanks and ships China's interest in Vietnam began in the 1940's when communism began to take control. In the 1954 Geneva Accords, following the Soviet Union, Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai urged the Viet Minh to accept a temporary partition of Vietnam at the 17th parallel. South Korea South Korea, after the US, had the largest contingent of soldiers in South Vietnam. At first, the United States largely operated behind the scenes. All Rights Reserved. Sino-Soviet relations went from bad to worse after the Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia in August 1968 and reached its nadir with an armed conflict at Sino-Soviet border in March 1969. What countries involved in the Vietnam War? What could have been the solutions for both North and South Vietnam? The Saudi Arabian forces involved in the war were estimated to be close to 100,000. Instead, Joseph Stalin encouraged Mao Zedong to assist North Vietnam, which he did in the First Indochina War and through the rest of the 1950s. The Philippines, Taiwan and Spain likewise aided the U.S. war effort, whereas on the communist side North Korea and Cuba purportedly sent token support. And France stayed the colonizing power-- I have a little gap in my timeline here-- and they stayed a colonizing power all the way through World War II. As the Pentagon Papers later revealed, “the Diem regime certainly, and an independent South Vietnam almost as certainly, could not have survived” without U.S. help. Similar to Beijing, Moscow who feared U.S. direct intervention in Vietnam urged Ho Chi Minh to accept the temporary division of Vietnam of the 1954 Geneva Accords and focus on building the country’s military and economy instead. Since 1965, China also began to send AAA divisions and engineering units to help Hanoi counter U.S. overwhelming air strikes during Operation Rolling Thunder, repair the destruction caused by American bombing as well as rebuild roads, railroads and defend critical infrastructure in the North. He explains that they were partially motivated by a sense of obligation and ideological sympathy: After all, they could not help but notice the historical parallels between themselves and South Vietnam. Since then, China played a decreasing and more passive role in helping their former close allies. The Domino Theory. The Soviets even allegedly shot down some U.S. planes. Unsurprisingly, the North Vietnamese likewise moved troops and supplies through neighboring Cambodia, which, though officially neutral, tolerated the communist intrusions. Meanwhile, President Richard Nixon authorized a cross-border invasion of Laos in 1971. At the same time, advances in video and audio recording enabled both easier… China and the Soviet Union didn’t have to do as much as the Americans, Moise explains, because they were buttressing the stronger side. Bombs ready to be loaded onto a French aircraft for the long drawn out Dien Bien Phu Battle of the Indochina War on April 10, 1954. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. (The two countries were undergoing a bitter split at the time.). Vietnam War (1954–75), conflict that pitted the communist government of North Vietnam and its allies in South Vietnam, the Viet Cong, against South Vietnam and its principal ally, the United States. This is the currently selected item. All rights reserved. Vietnam War Countries Involved View: More Articles from . The United States involvement in Vietnam began in 1950, during the French Indochina War. Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. i dont want explinations about federal nations and immigration and stuff, just give me a simple list of the countries invlved, and if you can, please tell me who were allies and … People’s Republic of China (PRC) was the first country that recognized the Democratic republic of vietnam (DRV) led by Ho Chi Minh back in January 1950. Sovfoto/Universal Images Group/Getty Images. Eventually, the conflict would grow to a global scale, and the Central Powers of Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire would fight against Great Britain, the United States, France, Russia, Italy, Japan and Romania (the Allied Powers). The War was mainly fought in South Vietnam, North Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. America and South Korea were the biggest supporters of Saigon. Though Vietnamese communists allied with the Khmer Rouge during the Vietnam War, they eventually deposed the regime in 1979. The nine-year campaign was so intense that, on average, a planeload of explosives fell every eight minutes, making Laos, per capita, the most heavily bombed nation on earth. Besides, China also began to fund, arm and train the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia as a counterbalance to the Vietnamese communists. Below is a list of nations that played a role in the Vietnam War, and details on what motivated them to get involved. WHAT COUNTRIES WERE INVOLVED IN THE VIETNAM WAR? During the Second World War, Japan invaded the country. Moscow now became North Vietnam’s main benefactor, increasing its aid to Hanoi in response to the US military escalation of 1965. Yet, as Moise points out, they both learned one important lesson: “It’s dangerous to get in a fight when the other side cares about winning more than you do.”. It was France's attempt to reestablish its rule in Vietnam after WWII. Therefore, their roles and involvement remain unclear. As a result, President Nixon ended all U.S. interventions in Vietnam and the rest of Southeast Asia in 1973. North Korea – Pyongyang also contributed to the communist north. Elections were planned to reunite the country within two years, but Diem, with U.S. approval, never submitted to a vote that he feared losing. South Vietnam is supported by what country. The Vietnam War is still going on in Vietnam. “Their function is as a tripwire,” Moise says, “a warning to the Americans: ‘Don’t go too far… or you’ll be fighting us.’”. Unexploded munitions from the Vietnam War-era continue to kill Laotians (and Vietnamese and Cambodians) to this day. This was the belief that if one country fell to communism, it was likely that the … His account of the Vietnam War, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann And America In Vietnam, took him 15 years to write. At first, the U.S. operated behind the scenes, but after 1964, sent combat troops and became more deeply mired in the war. 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