This energy is stored in the bonds of sugar. This process can be represented as: 6CO 2 + 12H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6H 2 O + 6O 2. Artificial photosynthesis is a chemical process that seeks to replicate the steps in the natural process of photosynthesis seen in plants. a. Sunlight absorbed, water taken in and broken down, oxygen is released. This process imitates the way that plants, levels affect photosynthesis rate Step 1) So, the sun's rays shine on plants, which absorb it's rays, mostly red and blue wavelengths. Comprised of two stages, one stage converts the light energy into sugar, and then cellular respiration converts the sugar to Adenosine triphosphate, known as ATP, the fuel for all cellular life. Name-_ Points=8 Chapter 7 (Photosynthesis) (Make sure to use ADOBE ACROBAT READER to fill in answers) 1. Artificial Photosynthesis What is the function of photosynthesis? These disklike compartments, called thylakoids, are arranged vertically in the chloroplast like a stack of plates or pancakes [4]. _____ light from the sun reaches Earth. The plant takes in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through the stomata on its leaves. Steps of Photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, many reactions take place, but the overall process can be summarized by a … Learn. Overview of the two steps in the photosynthesis process. Carbon dioxide, water and light are all needed for photosynthesis to take place. Photosynthesis is a chemical process in plants which converts light energy to chemical energy. Write 3 steps of photosynthesis 2 See answers Habibqureshi Habibqureshi Answer: The three events that occur during the process of photosynthesis are: (i) Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll. jessicabailey07. explain them in terms of the light and the dark stages December 4, 2020 / in Nursing Essays Writers / by Nursing Writing Help Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convertlight energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms’ activities Additional light-trapping pigments, enzymes, and other molecules needed for photosynthesis are also located within the thylakoid membranes [4]. Discuss how plants create oxygen. These sugar molecules contain energy and the energized carbon that all living things need to survive (OpenStax College, 2013). Explaining Why Photosynthesis is Needed Discuss how plants create oxygen. 1. Investigating the rate of photosynthesis. One plant leaf is composed of tens of thousands of cells, and each cell contains 40 to 50 chloroplasts. 5. Photosynthesis is a multi-step process that requires sunlight, carbon dioxide and water as substrates. How does this meaning tell you which reactions in photosynthesis require light, and which reactions do not? MEMORY METER. Share 0. The prefix chloro‐ means "green" and the suffix -phyll means "leaf". _____ plant converts sunlight to chemical energy. 12. Light-Independent Reactions. Plants that comprise the majority of the food we consume need photosynthesis in order to produce life sustaining energy. A Step-by-step Guide to Understand the Process of Photosynthesis. Explains the connection between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Then, explain the importance of each product for life on earth. (ii) Conversion of light energy to chemical energy and splitting of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. Photosynthesis. In order to replace lost electrons, Photosynthesis is a chemical process by which green plants use the radiant energy to synthesize certain nutrients using water and carbon dioxide. Photosynthesis is the process by which autotrophic plants make their own food. Department Of Mathematics And Science Education 13. Green plants are autotrophs, or producers. They produce chemical energy for themselves and other organisms. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert the sun’s energy into chemical energy. Explain where each reactant comes from and how the plant gets it. If it were not for photosynthesis to capture and use this vital energy, life itself would be minimal or almost non-existent. The byproduct of photosynthesis, oxygen, profoundly contributes to the formation of the protective ozone layer (Johnson, 2016). Therefore, almost all life on earth, directly or indirectly, depends on photosynthesis as a source of food, energy, and oxygen, making it one of the most important biochemical processes known. After the process is complete, it releases oxygen and produces glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, simple carbohydrate molecules that can be converted into glucose, sucrose, or any other sugar molecules. The prefix photo‐ means "light" and synthesis means "to put together." Step 1) So, the sun's rays shine on plants, which absorb it's rays, mostly red and blue wavelengths. Step by Step Process of Photosynthesis Step 1. Glucose is a … University Of Botswana Abstract 5. Preview; Assign Practice; Preview. % Progress . The sun's energy molecules are moved, and converted in an area called a stomata . Photosynthesis helps plants to generate glucose, carbohydrates, and oxygen by using carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight. Moreover, for the process to be able to work it is required that the following resources are accessible: water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight. _____ plant uses chemical energy to make organic compound (glucose) 4. the process of photosynthesis involves two main steps. The process of photosynthesis is similar to that of C 4 plants but instead of spatial separation of initial PEPcase fixation and final Rubisco fixation of CO 2, the two steps occur in the same cells (in the stroma of mesophyll chloroplasts) but at different times, night and day, e.g., Sedum, Kalanchoe, Opuntia, Pineapple (Fig. Photosynthesis entails a process that involves complex and fundamental actions that occur in plants, algae as well as some bacteria, Photosynthesis is the process by which organisms that contain the pigment chlorophyll convert light energy into chemical energy which can be stored in the molecular bonds of organic molecules. Photosynthesis: The process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light energy into chemical energy. Chlorophyll absorbs the red and blue segment of the white light and photosynthesis occurs most efficiently at these wavelengths. How are these meanings related to chlorophyll? Photosynthesis Summary . Photosynthesis begins with the absorption of light in the thylakoid membrane. PLAY. The sun's light, or energy, … Match. a. Sunlight absorbed, water taken in and broken down, oxygen is released. to convert solar energy into the chemical energy of sugars. Photosynthesis is critical for the existence of the vast majority of life on Earth. Photosynthesis Equation . Photosynthesis is a multi-step process that requires sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water as substrates. Assign to Class. Photosynthesis is a very important part of life because it provides oxygen to all living things and living things need oxygen in order to survive. Not only do these plants make food for themselves, Introduction During photosynthesis in green plants, light energy is captured and used to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds. In plants, photosynthesis typically occurs within the chloroplasts located in plant leaves. Student of the month‎ > ‎ 4 Simple Steps posted Oct 21, 2009, 8:58 AM by Trey Childress [ updated Oct 19, 2011, 7:07 AM] Photosynthesis can be explained in four simple steps, as follows. Photosynthesis has two main stages: light reactions and the Calvin cycle; the Calvin cycle has three stages called carbon fixation, reduction and regeneration of RuBP. Test. The chloroplast, an oval-shaped structure, is divided by membranes into numerous disk-shaped compartments. The hydrogen from water molecules and carbon dioxide absorbed from the air are used in the production of glucose. Photosynthesis 4 kidz. The next step takes the energy from the light reaction and applies it to a process called the Calvin cycle. Photosynthesis powers almost all trophic chains and food webs on the Earth. Photosynthesis is a multi-step process that requires sunlight, carbon dioxide and water as substrates. The whole process of photosynthesis is not divided into 3, but into 2 steps - light and dark reactions.The dark reactions are also known as the dark phase of photosynthesis … Photosynthesis is defined as one process, but contains two distinct stages, which in turn break down into a series of steps. During the process of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide plus water in the presence of sunlight, enzymes and chlorophyll produce glucose and oxygen as waste product. Gravity. d. Sugar created. Step 2) In plants, special cell structures, called chloroplasts absorb the light from the sun. Animals and bacteria also create G3P as part of their own steps of making carbohydrate. In this article, we attempt to answer all your queries about this process. This occurs in the thylakoid membrane as the light photons are captured and excited electrons are bounced around inside the thylakoid compartment until it is captured in the photosystem. In plants, photosynthesis typically occurs within the chloroplasts located in plant leaves. What are the differences between the light‐dependent reactions and the light‐independent reactions? Photosynthesis represents the biological process by which plants convert light energy into sugar to fuel plant cells. Answer Photosynthesis is a process where compounds like carbohydrates are synthesized from simple inorganic compounds like carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight with the liberation of oxygen. This energy is harnessed by the sun. Overall, photosynthesis is a very complex process with steps involved. After the process is complete, it releases oxygen and produces glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, simple carbohydrate molecules that can be converted into glucose, sucrose, or any other sugar molecules. Chlorophyll appears green to the eye because it does not absorb green waves on the light spectrum. select the ultimate source of energy for nearly every organism on this planet. The prefix in‐ means "not." As with many chemical process energy is need to make and break molecules during the chemical process. Place the following steps in order and write the number of each step in the space provided. What happens is that the inorganic molecules (molecules that do not contain both hydrogen and carbon atoms) is converted into organic (molecules that contain both hydrogen and carbon atoms). Co2, water, chlorophyll, and sunlight are four important requirements for this process. STUDY. Using a numbered list for the steps of your experimental procedure is much clearer than writing a whole paragraph of text. During the steps in the light reaction stage, energy from the sun converts into chemical energy, while the Calvin cycle brings carbon dioxide fixation. c. Carbon dioxide taken in. The green plants convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy by making glucose. Photosynthesis, the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light energy into chemical energy. A stack of thylakoids is called a granum. glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or G3P: A molecule created as part of the chemical steps that form simple carbohydrates. Provide the equation for photosynthesis. Embedded in the membranes of the thylakoids are hundreds of molecules of chlorophyll (Figure 7), a light-trapping pigment required for photosynthesis. The energy of the light makes a difference in its effect on photosynthesis. Step 2. Match. There are vast applications to the biomimetic process of artificial photosynthesis including the generation of clean, sustainable, and large-scale energy resources; moreover, this water-splitting process allows the production of renewable chemical fuels. Part B. Photosynthesis occurs in two steps: Light reaction and Dark Reaction. The reactants of photosynthesis are water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide. What is another name for a producer? The net equation of photosynthesis is 6CO2 + 6H2O ---> C6H12O6 + 6O2 (Starr, September 18, 2017 It reflects them instead, so that's the color you see. Here is a summary of the steps used by plants and other organisms to use solar energy to make chemical energy: In plants, photosynthesis usually occurs in the leaves. How do those meanings tell you what happens during photosynthesis? Chlorophyll is a light absorbing molecule that is found in plant leaves and makes them look green. The first stage of photosynthesis, is known as the light-dependent reaction. Coin shaped compartments that contain chlorophyll and are found in grana. plpsopa. _____ animals eat plants to get energy. This is an example of a common experiment used to investigate light intensity and the rate of photosynthesis. The chemical equation for the entire process can be seen below. 14. PLAY. Introduction. 2. This process to happen efficiently it requires the presence of light, water carbon dioxide, chlorophyll and enzymes. Add to Library ; Share with Classes; Add to FlexBook® … Investigating the rate of photosynthesis. In summary, photosynthesis is a process in which light energy is converted to chemical energy and used to produce organic compounds. Write the steps of photosynthesis? Light photons are absorbed by a pigment called chlorophyll, which is abundant in the thylakoid membrane of each chloroplast. Terms in this set (7) Step 1-Light Dependent. The series of reactions used to do this conversion (referred to collectively as photosynthesis) creates molecular oxygen, O 2.This oxygen, which is critical for all other life on the planet, is released into the atmosphere. The cycle is named for Melvin Calvin, the man who discovered it. It is a highly complex process that needs to be broken down in many steps to understand how it works. _____ plant absorbs sunlight . All the oxygen we breathe is the result of this step in photosynthesis, carried out by plants and algae (which are not plants) the world over. Because a chloroplast may have dozens of thylakoids, and each thylakoid may contain thousands of, The Principles of Police Leadership Essay, We Must Protect Animals from Needless Experiments Essay, Essay about Religion and Conflicts: The Future of Kashmir, Relationship Between Breakfast and Academic Performance Essay. They use light energy from the sun to make food. In the initial step, energy is stockpiled in the form of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH) which comes from light. One of the most important bological processes on earth is photosynthesis. The grana lie suspended in a fluid known as stroma [3] (Figure 6). The sun's energy molecules are moved, and converted in an area called a stomata . Photosynthesis It is the biological phenomena due to which plants make their own food (Glucose) by the usage of sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. De-starching is a step in which the starch present in the leaves of the plant will be removed by keeping the variegated leaves plant in a dark room or closed cup-board for about 48 hours. In order to understand, Introduction Write the steps of photosynthesis? Write the chemical equation for the overall process of photosynthesis. The following considerations can help you understand this concept. the sun. There are two steps: Light reactions, which take place in the presence of light. 3. The process of photosynthesis provides plants with the food and energy they need to grow. Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. … Step 2- Light Dependent. As primary producers, photosynthetic organisms form the base of Earth’s food webs and are consumed directly or indirectly by all higher life-forms. Jessica Pamment of DePaul University explains the steps of photosynthesis from the light reactions, inclusive of Photosystem II and I and chemiosmosis, to the Calvin Cycle in the light-independent reactions. Overview of Photosynthesis. It is the way in which virtually all energy in the biosphere becomes available to living things. Through many chemical reactions... 9. Stage One: Light Reactions. This phase is commonly known as the light reaction. The rule of thumb is that you should write the method in a clear way so that readers are able to repeat the experiment and get similar results. Producer = Autotroph. Before beginning it is important to note that, photosynthesis feeds every living organism on this planet directly or indirectly, and without it on earth life would not be possible. Light‐independent reactions: Does NOT require sunlight, requires CO2, takes place in the stroma, creates sugars. Share with your friends. which of the following can carry out photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is important because it provides two main things: food; oxygen; Some of the glucose that plants produce during photosynthesis is … Gravity. Photosynthesis takes place through several steps which occur during two stages: the light phase and the dark phase. Write. The pigments and enzymes are arranged in two types of units, Photosystem I and Photosystem II (Figure 8). Steps of Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration By Jonas Martonas Plants capture energy from sunlight and carbon dioxide. The first step of photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells. This equation simply means that carbon dioxide from the air and water combine in the presence of sunlight, Photosynthesis is the complex process of converting the sun’s light energy into chemical energy that is stored in plants as sugars or other organic compounds. Photosynthesis is a chemical process in plants which converts light energy to chemical energy. Plants need three things for photosynthesis to occur: sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. 13. seaweeds, bacteria, plants. View Chapter 7 Worksheet Fall20.pdf from BIO 1 at Norco College. Photosynthesis Is A Multi Step Process Essay 827 Words | 4 Pages. Test. Why are some organisms called producers? Let’s go over the main steps for one of these processes here. The whole procedure ensues in two major steps. Photosynthesis is the process plants use to convert carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight into food. 2. The radiant energy is broken down the water into hydrogen atom and oxygen atoms, Photosynthesis is a multi-step process that requires sunlight, carbon dioxide and water as substrates. Photosynthesis is a complex process that can be divided into two or more stages, such light-dependent and light-independent reactions. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make their own food using carbon dioxide, water and sunlight. Above is the … The chemical energy contained in these two molecules is used in the next step of photosynthesis to construct carbohydrates. Carbon dioxide and water, the reactants, enter photosynthesis. Sunlight is absorbed by the chorophll which is a chemical in the choroplasts. After the process is complete, it releases oxygen and produces glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, simple carbohydrate molecules that can be converted into glucose, sucrose, or any other sugar molecules. Progress % Practice Now. The extra glucose formed changes into starch which is stored in leaves. 8. Photosynthesis: This is the process of making glucose—which cells use as an energy source—from sunlight energy, water and carbon dioxide. The chemical equation for photosynthesis can be represented like this: 6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 You can interpret this equation to mean that carbon dioxide (or CO2) and H2O (or water) are used to create C6H1206 (o… Photosynthesis is … What does Photosynthesis produce? CO2 and H2O enter the leaf. Photosynthesis It is the biological phenomena due to which plants make their own food (Glucose) by the usage of sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. The second stage of photosynthesis involves the conversion of carbon dioxide into carbohydrates. Phaladi Phaladi Energy carried along the thylakoid membrane to the stroma. The whole procedure ensues in two major steps. Search this site. Photosynthesis is a multi-step process that requires sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water as substrates. … The end product is glucose, but the complex organic molecule such as carbohydrates, amino acid, lipids, and nucleic acids. First is the light-dependent reaction in which energy from light is captured to create energy dense ATP and NADPH. Photosynthesis is a vital process for the survival of all life on Earth. Give me some sugar. Organelles where photosynthesis takes place. 6.13). Photosynthesis Summary . Photosynthesis is the process undergone by plants consisting of a series of chemical reactions that require four factors; water, carbon dioxide, radiant energy and temperature using chlorophyll molecules to trap radiant energy from the sun resulting in the making of glucose and oxygen as bi-products. Created by. Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that takes place inside a plant, producing food for the plant to survive. In the light-dependent process, which takes place in the grana, the stacked membrane structure within chloroplasts, the direct energy of light helps the plant to make molecules that carry energy for utilization in the dark phase of photosynthesis. Let’s go over the main steps for one of these processes here. 6CO2 + 6H2O + Light Energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2 Second is the light-independent reaction in which the products from the first reaction are used to fix carbon. 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + Light -> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2 O. Water gets into the plant mainly through the roots and finds its way to the leaves, where photosynthesis occurs. Before starting the experiment to prove chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis an important step has to be carried out is known as De-starching. Jessica Pamment of DePaul University explains the steps of photosynthesis from the light reactions, inclusive of Photosystem II and I and chemiosmosis, to the Calvin Cycle in the light-independent reactions. 10. Photosynthesis has two main stages: light reactions and the Calvin cycle; the Calvin cycle has three stages called carbon fixation, reduction and regeneration of RuBP. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (23) identify the principal role of photosynthesis. Overview of Photosynthesis. 7. Reactantsare the inputs of the photosynthesis process, and the outputs or products of photosynthesis are glucose and oxygen. This indicates how strong in your memory this concept is. Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide, water, and light energy to make sugar. List the 4 steps of photosynthesis that take place in the chloroplast. The electrons are then sent through an electron transfer chain to the next photosystem. Photosynthesis consists of 2 stages. The net process of photosynthesis is described by the following equation: This lab covers the big components in photosynthesis including carbon dioxide intake, light consumption, and varying pigmentation. Photosynthesis: This is the process of making glucose—which cells use as an energy source—from sunlight energy, water and carbon dioxide. The greater the light levels the more energy is available to carry out process of photosynthesis. This energy is … Introduction To Photosynthesis; The Steps Involved in the Light Reaction. Photosynthesis is the process described by this equation This equation shows the complex 2 steps process that takes place in the chloroplast of green plants. Some photosynthesis, These fossil fuels, including natural gas, coal, and petroleum, are composed of a complex mix of hydrocarbons, the remains of organisms that relied on photosynthesis millions of years ago [3]. Light (in)dependent reaction do NOT require oxygen, while light dependent reactions require oxygen. 6.13). Flashcards. Plants are autotrophic organisms, meaning they generate their own food, as opposed to animals, heterotrophs, which need to actively acquire their … (CAM was for the first time studied and reported by Ting (1971). But there needs to be light/solar energy (from the Sun) in order for this … It produces oxygen and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P or GA3P), simple carbohydrate molecules that are high in energy and can subsequently be converted into glucose, sucrose, or other sugar molecules. Step 2) In plants, special cell structures, called chloroplasts absorb the light from the sun. Remember chlorophyll reflects green light and absorbs all the rest. Carbon dioxide and oxygen enter/exit the leaves through pores called stomata. The process of photosynthesis is similar to that of C 4 plants but instead of spatial separation of initial PEPcase fixation and final Rubisco fixation of CO 2, the two steps occur in the same cells (in the stroma of mesophyll chloroplasts) but at different times, night and day, e.g., Sedum, Kalanchoe, Opuntia, Pineapple (Fig. Light‐dependent reactions: Requires sunlight & H2O, takes place in thylakoids, creates O2 & some ATP. Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide, water, and light energy to make sugar. Practice. List the 4 steps of photosynthesis that take place in the chloroplast. (iii) Reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrates. In summary, photosynthesis is a process in which light energy is converted to chemical energy and used to produce organic compounds. This is an example of a common experiment used to investigate light intensity and the rate of photosynthesis. Explain what the equation of photosynthesis means. During the steps in the light reaction stage, energy from the sun converts into chemical energy, while the Calvin cycle brings carbon dioxide fixation. Create Assignment . All organisms must grow and reproduce energy and without photosynthesis that wouldn’t be possible. Easy to understand photosynthesis lesson. It produces oxygen and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P or GA3P), simple carbohydrate molecules that are high in energy and can subsequently be converted into glucose, sucrose, or other sugar molecules. Carbon dioxide is absorbed into the plant through small openings on the leaves called stomata . In addition to that, photosynthesis controls 99% of the Earth’s ecosystem for every organism requires energy to fulfill their metabolism (“Overview of Photosynthesis”, 2013). Photosynthesis is the process by which plants synthesise food by utilizing the CO2 and sunlight and H2O and results in the formation of glucose/starch and give out O2 as byproduct. 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( make sure to use ADOBE ACROBAT READER to fill in answers ) 1 is... Pigments and enzymes layer ( Johnson, 2016 ) the majority of life on is! The end product is glucose, carbohydrates, amino acid, lipids, and nucleic.! Byproduct of photosynthesis, the light reaction coin shaped compartments that contain chlorophyll and are found in leaves... Own steps of your experimental procedure is much clearer than writing a paragraph! 827 Words | 4 Pages, life itself would be minimal or non-existent. Experiment used to investigate light intensity and the dark phase consists of two phases the. Process energy is converted to chemical energy and the outputs or products of photosynthesis occurs sun to make food life! Following considerations can help you understand this concept during the chemical process in which light energy water! Entire process can be summarized by a … Overview of photosynthesis that ’! Needs to be broken down, oxygen is released, lipids, and are. Create energy the first step of photosynthesis 3 ] ( Figure 6 ) all in one convenient.! Photosynthesis require light, and light are all needed for photosynthesis to occur: sunlight, carbon dioxide,,... Life itself would be minimal or almost non-existent, mostly red and blue segment of the vast majority the! Virtually all energy in the bonds of sugar the roots and finds its to... Plant, producing food for themselves and other organisms photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and water as substrates in! Be broken down in many steps to understand how it works within cell structures chloroplasts... How the plant gets it nearly every organism on this planet energy + water + carbon dioxide, and molecules. Plants can get the raw materials for photosynthesis an important step has to write the steps of photosynthesis carried out is known the... Product is glucose, but contains two distinct stages, the sun but the complex organic molecule such as,... 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Step takes the energy of the protective ozone layer ( Johnson, 2016 ) and carbon dioxide, called (... Convert the sun 's rays shine on plants, photosynthesis is the process of photosynthesis first phase the! Then, explain the importance of each chloroplast uses carbon dioxide glucose ) 4 of. Key Concepts: terms in this set ( 7 ), a light-trapping pigment required photosynthesis., a light-trapping pigment required for photosynthesis to capture and use this energy! Product is glucose, carbohydrates, amino acid, lipids, and converted in an area called a stomata generate. Convert carbon dioxide important bological processes on Earth is photosynthesis things for photosynthesis all in one convenient location formed! Three things for photosynthesis an important step has to be carried out is known stroma... Light makes a difference in its effect on photosynthesis to be carried out is known as the light-dependent reaction starch! Has to be broken down, oxygen is released glucose—which cells use as an energy source—from sunlight,... Lipids, and carbon dioxide critical for the plant cells take in water, and sunlight the importance of product. … Overview of photosynthesis, the process of photosynthesis are glucose and oxygen by using carbon dioxide in space! Set ( 23 ) identify the principal role of photosynthesis are water, and carbon dioxide in and! Produce organic compounds energy + water + carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight into food sunlight four. Including carbon dioxide and water as substrates that 's the color you see principal.