Coastal infrastructure such as breakwaters and seawalls cannot always protect life and property: even great seawalls can fail. Seawalls should be designed with the assumption of overtopping and destruction, and communities should not rely on coastal infrastructures alone for protection. In the early morning on 3 March 1933, another major tsunami struck the Sanriku Coast. Conceptual image of tsunami-prevention facilities in Sendai city [49]. In the 2011 Tohoku event, at least eight RC or steel construction buildings were found overturned or washed away in Onagawa town and Miyako city. After the tsunami was observed at offshore tsunami buoys, JMA revised the contents of the warning with estimates of 3 m, 6 m, over 10 m, 6 m, 4 m and 4 m to the coasts of Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaraki and Chiba prefectures, respectively. A significant feature of Sendai city's reconstruction plan is integrating several coastal protection facilities, such as seawalls, coastal forests, park (artificial hill) and elevated roads to minimize the potential losses. Then the question is ‘what are the great seawalls for?’. Japan is one of the best tsunami-prepared countries in the world, which is one of the reasons the world is still reeling from the 2011 event. >�=wL[���j��Y-� 2 .��i��.&@-+s��8靐�t�y�)�ؼ��$5�T�lc�J�l�!��8%a[`Ӝ� 1�d�h�� � @Q J `>���”�M�H��0�+{�|��3"�9�fe��Y#s��ׯ��̵a��51b|#u Vlž@����ؖ����g�0 ��Y+ This 18 m tall lighthouse built on a cliff 10 m a.s.l. They had two options. Tohoku University's School of Engineering and the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES). De zeebeving nabij Sendai in 2011 was een zware zeebeving die zich voordeed op 11 maart 2011 voor de noordoostkust van het Japanse eiland Honshu.Het epicentrum van de beving, die een kracht van 9,0 - 9,1 op de momentmagnitudeschaal had, bevond zich voor de kust van de prefectuur Miyagi op circa 370 km ten noordoosten van de Japanse hoofdstad Tokio en circa 130 km ten oosten … Text by: RFI Follow 2 min. As indicated in the figure, we found that the multiple protection measures for Level 2 tsunami will contribute to substantially reduce the tsunami inundation zone and flow depth on Sendai plain especially at the western side of 6 m elevated prefectural road. When the earthquake severed the connection between the nuclear power plant and the Japan electrical grid, the diesel backup system turned on as it was supposed to. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to reset your password. Photo: AP/Kyodo . Based on this new reconstruction plan in the tsunami-affected area, Sendai city has formulated its tsunami evacuation plan [50] to protect lives. H�l�I��6��>�/���i�E�#. endstream endobj 98 0 obj <> endobj 99 0 obj <> endobj 100 0 obj <>stream I join Congressman Edward Markey today to highlight my concerns on overall U.S. readiness for the … Here I review how I prepared our family for disaster and how you can do the same . The economic losses reached about 10% of the national budget of the time [4]. It was found in the 2011 event that this lack of toe protection became a weak point, once overflowed. Japan’s 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami: Food and Agriculture Implications Congressional Research Service Summary The March 11, 2011, earthquake … The discussion mainly focuses on structural measures such as seawalls and breakwaters and non-structural measures of hazard map and evacuation. The tsunami created over 300,000 refugees in the Tōhoku region of Japan, and resulted in shortages of food, water, shelter, medicine and fuel for survivors. Author: Wendy Sue Swanson, MD, MBE. How can we educate children to be prepared? The solid lines are obtained from the devastated municipalities of Miyagi prefecture (from the 2011 event) and the dashed one is from Banda Aceh, Indonesia (the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami) [37]. Thus, the residents were suddenly attacked by the tsunami. The Sanriku Coast lies on the north-eastern side of the island of Honshu (in the Tohoku region), corresponding to Aomori, Iwate and Miyagi prefectures. “If this could happen to Japan, what about us?” A field survey, Mapping of building damage of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami in Miyagi prefecture, Developing fragility functions for tsunami damage estimation using numerical model and post-tsunami data from Banda Aceh, Indonesia, Tsunami fragility, a new measure to assess tsunami damage, Lessons from the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami disaster, 2003 Near field survey of the 1946 Aleutian tsunami on Unimak and Senak islands, Time and space distribution of Coseismic slip of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake as inferred from Tsunami waveform data, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Tsunamis: bridging science, engineering and society, www.pari.go.jp/en/files/3653/460607839.pdf, https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/zisin1948/55/4/55_4_389/_article, www2.jpgu.org/meeting/2011/yokou/MIS036-P120.pdf, www.bousai.go.jp/kaigirep/chousakai/tohokukyokun/pdf/sankou.pdf, http://www.bousai.go.jp/kaigirep/chousakai/tohokukyokun/pdf/Report.pdf, www.tsunami.civil.tohoku.ac.jp/hokusai3/J/events/tohoku_2011/model/dcrc_ver1.2.pdf, www.city.sendai.jp/shinsai/shinsaihukkokentou/pdf/keikakushiryou/plan%20English.pdf, www.city.sendai.jp/kurashi/bosai/jishin/_icsFiles/afieldfile/2015/03/24/tebiki-English.pdf, Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products, the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster, post-disaster recovery and reconstruction. Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, March 2011. Tsunami barriers were severely damaged, some reinforced concrete buildings were totally destroyed, and inundation maps underestimated in several areas. It’s easy to think that since you can’t predict when or where an earthquake will occur, or what damage will result, you can’t do much to prepare for one. The tsunami was predicted to hit Tuvalu at 1.30am. Japan Tsunami: Reminder For Parents To Prepare. h��Xmo�6�+��aK�w�@a q�C����As�Ām� Onagawa town, Miyagi prefecture (10 014 population before the earthquake), is one of the towns devastated by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami. Throughout the case study in Sendai city, the proposed reconstruction plan was evaluated from the tsunami engineering point of view to discuss how the post 2011 paradigm was implemented in coastal communities for future disaster mitigation. Japan earthquake and tsunami, severe natural disaster that occurred in northeastern Japan on March 11, 2011, and killed at least 20,000 people. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant cooling … “People [in the region] are fairly well-prepared. Japan issued a tsunami warning within three minutes back in 2011, but lacking that historical data, the authorities underestimated the size of … The first tsunami breakwater was constructed at the mouth of Ofunato Bay, Iwate prefecture, where the maximum water depth was 38 m. The functionality of this breakwater for protection was investigated through numerical analysis [6]. Receiving the tsunami warning from JMA, some residents claimed that they thought they were safe based on the 3 m estimation: they did not feel that they had to evacuate, as they felt safe behind a 10 m seawall. This phrase encourages people to escape by making individual decisions and taking personal responsibility; every individual effort increases the possibility of surviving. I think the tsunami has done most of the damage and at the moment there is no way to put out warning of the tsunami when they occur so close to the cost,” McCue said. The tsunami flooded 561 km2 of land along the Pacific coast of Japan (Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, www.gsi.go.jp) and affected 602 200 residents and killed 3.5% of them (Statistics Bureau of Japan, www.stat.go.jp/info/shinsai/index.htm). The tsunami source scenarios considered in preparing hazard maps are determined by the results of long-term evaluation of seismic activities. In the 2011 tsunami/earthquake, some damage could have been avoided if Japan were as prepared for the tsunami as they were for the earthquake. Japan was not really badly affected by the earthquake because it is prepared for earthquakes – we will find out how later in this lesson. For instance, based on the findings regarding the structural vulnerability (figure 3), Sendai city determined a reconstruction plan [49] to reduce the tsunami flow depth to less than 2 m in the populated area with a conceptual image of multiple coastal protection (figure 4). The nation-wide post-tsunami survey results shed light on the mechanisms of structural destruction, tsunami loads and structural vulnerability to inform structural rehabilitation measures and land-use planning. Japan's Fukushima region transformed from rural haven to ravaged wasteland when the earthquake and tsunami struck in March 2011. On this basis, the maximum potential earthquake in the Tohoku region was estimated as Mw 8.5. Based on the promptly estimated magnitude 7.9, 3 min after the quake (14.49 JST), JMA issued a Major tsunami warning to the coasts of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures with estimates of 3 m, 6 m and 3 m, respectively. One option was a hill with a steep slope behind the school, which looked difficult for small children to climb. Japan is one of the most well-prepared countries in the world to deal with the threat of a tsunami.Warning systems are in place, and concrete sea walls wrap around much of the coastline. Figure 5. S.K. In a subduction zone, one plate slides beneath another into the mantle, the hotter layer beneath the crust. In Japan, sadly, evidence of the 2011 tsunami is easy to find. On Japan's east … The map was delivered to every household before the 2011 event to announce the tsunami inundation zone in past events, list of evacuation facilities, and brief instructions for earthquake and tsunami preparedness. This fact called for serious reflection on the conventional method that was used after 1960 which relied mainly on coastal structures. 3. When the 2011 event occurred at 14.46 JST on 11 March, JMA's initial estimate of the magnitude (Mjma) was 7.9, which is a combination of the magnitude based on ground displacement for relatively large earthquakes and the magnitude based on ground velocity for relatively small earthquakes [20]. A massive 9.0-magnitude earthquake struck Japan, Friday afternoon, on 11 March 2011 @ 0546 GMT 2. On the other hand, a hazard map can function to assure residents living outside of the expected inundation zone that their area is NOT at risk. [1] At 14:46 local time on March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off the coast of northeast Japan. We must learn lessons from the incidents. The tsunami attacked the town at 15.20 JST (34 min after the earthquake occurred) and caused 816 fatalities and 125 missing. This finding can inform land-use planning, so that residential areas will not be inundated more than 2 m. Also, we found high-rise RC buildings with robust columns and walls withstood tsunami flow depths over 2 m and can be used for vertical evacuation. )Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPointFigure 5. 4. %PDF-1.6 %���� (Online version in colour. (a) Setting of tsunami prevention facilities in Sendai city reconstruction plan [49]. Teachers, parents and children should have more opportunities to learn about their risk and how to survive in emergency situations. Following the expanded seismic/tsunami monitoring network by installing broadband seismometers and offshore tsunami monitoring systems, JMA's tsunami warning increased its capability for quicker and more accurate estimation of earthquake magnitude and tsunami. The seawall is designed with reference to Level 1 tsunami scenario, while comprehensive disaster management measures should refer to Level 2 tsunami for protection of human lives and reducing potential losses and damage. The 6.3 m s−1 of inundation flow of the ascending tsunami caused a drag force per unit meter width of 100 kN m−1 [32]. SCMP Editorial. This problem is not yet solved. As observed in the tsunami fragility curves, structures were especially vulnerable when the local flow depth exceeded 2 m, while a 6 m flow depth would cause everything to be washed away. Even now, numerical simulations cannot predict everything that will happen in a disaster. The seawall's height was determined by considering historical tsunami heights in the past 150 years and storm surge heights in the past 50 years (Level 1).   It was the fifth most powerful earthquake ever recorded, and within 30 minutes, a 133-foot high tsunami pummeled Japan's northeastern shoreline. A tsunami forecasting chart was drafted empirically. The radio station broadcast the tsunami warning at 10pm local time last Friday, after the earthquake in Japan. Japan poorly prepared for tsunami nuclear plant threat, says IAEA. (b) Result of tsunami numerical modelling to evaluate the effect of the proposed reconstruction plan in Sendai city (maximum flow depth).Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint, Figure 4. The 2004 Sumatra–Andaman earthquake tsunami (Mw 9.0–9.3) killed 220 000 people, while the 2011 event (Mw 9.0) caused over 18 000 fatalities. This is one negative aspect of relying heavily on a hazard map. Even in Onagawa town, 28 people were saved inside the boiler room of a five-storey RC building which was totally submerged by the tsunami inundation flow. A part of this video was uploaded to the website of the Japanese newspaper company Yomiuri Shimbun [31]. Japan earthquake: country better prepared than anyone for quakes and tsunamis No country on Earth is better prepared than Japan to deal with earthquakes – or the tsunamis that result from them 0 Issued on: 01/06/2011 - 10:37 Modified: 01/06/2011 - 14:28. Under the limitations and uncertain conditions of funding, prefectural and local governments have developed their own recovery and reconstruction plans, which require 10 years to be completed (National budget is allocated for the first 5 years). Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Japan’s 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami: Food and Agriculture Implications Renée Johnson Specialist in Agricultural Policy May 18, 2011 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41766 The tsunami caused 1280 dead or missing even in this well-prepared community.Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint. When the earthquake severed the connection between the nuclear power plant and the Japan electrical grid, the diesel backup system turned on as it was supposed to. These principles are now highly valued as one of best practice/outcome of disaster education. He told the students not to trust hazard maps, to make their best efforts in any situation, and to take the initiative of evacuation in the community. Published by the Royal Society. Tsunami inland penetration with strong inundation flow causes damage to infrastructures, forests, buildings and humans. This is the fourth largest earthquake in the world and the largest in Japan … Enter your email address below and we will send you the reset instructions. NOAA Weather Radio … Coastal dykes were constructed at five sites only, because of expensive construction costs. On March 11, 2011, a devastating 9.0-magnitude quake struck under the Pacific Ocean, and the resulting tsunami caused widespread damage and claimed thousands of lives. For Sendai city, we performed numerical modelling of tsunami inundation in the city by setting several tsunami source scenarios [47,48]. In this sense, the government policy of designing coastal protection is for the 150 year tsunami level, the so-called ‘Level 1’ or ‘Prevention Level’, ensuring that coastal protection will prevent tsunamis from penetrating inland to protect lives and properties (or economic activities). The event began with a powerful earthquake off the coast of Honshu, Japan’s main island, which initiated a series of large tsunami … The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku (Japanese: 東北地方太平洋沖地震, Hepburn: Tōhoku-chihō Taiheiyō Oki Jishin) was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 (M w) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011, with the epicenter approximately 70 kilometers (43 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an … At the same time, rapid economic growth resulted from the ‘Income-Doubling Plan’ that started in 1960, an age of rapid growth, could cover the expensive construction costs. Both events are probably similar with regard to the size of the earthquake and the height of the tsunami. Some areas are more protected than others, mostly in the northern coastal areas of the country. “If this could happen to Japan, what about us?” Conceptual image of tsunami-prevention facilities in Sendai city [49]. 1 Anti-Earthquake Infrastructure 1.1 Gallery 2 Anti-Tsunami Infrastructure 2.1 Sea Wall 2.1.1 Gallery 3 Moving Towns Inland 4 Abolishing nuclear power 5 Scientific research 6 Warning systems 7 External Link 8 References Japan and the areas bordering the … The Kamaishi tsunami breakwater is in the Guinness Book of World Records as the deepest tsunami breakwater at nearly 63 m deep, and was designed to protect the densely populated area in Kamaishi city located at the bottom of the bay. A violent, magnitude 9-point-zero earthquake on March 11, 2011. For the largest-possible tsunami level of the more than 150 year recurrence interval, the so-called extreme event (such as the 2011 Tohoku event), the government refers to this as ‘Level 2’ or ‘Preparedness/Mitigation Level’ to protect human lives and to reduce the losses and damage with comprehensive disaster management measures including coastal protection, urban planning, evacuation and public education. Tsunami fragility curves for structural destruction (washed-away structures) [39]. For such cases, JMA has introduced methods to quickly highlight the possibility of underestimation in magnitude estimation and issues an initial tsunami warning based on the largest seismic fault expected in the area where the earthquake was triggered [21]. Three months after the 1933 event, the Council on Earthquake Disaster Prevention (CEDP) of the Ministry of Education proposed a total system of tsunami disaster mitigation that consisted of 10 countermeasures: relocation of dwelling houses to high ground, coastal dykes, tsunami control forests, seawalls, tsunami-resistant areas, buffer zones, evacuation routes, tsunami watch, tsunami evacuation, memorial events. (b) The map of tsunami inundation extent in the 2011 event (www.gsi.go.jp). The maps seem quite similar in terms of the tsunami inundation extent. Japan should use what it already knows and learn from its experiences in order to prepare more effectively in case of a future natural disaster. On 11 March, 2011 a devastating tsunami triggered by a Mw 9.0 earthquake struck the northern Pacific coast of Japan, and completely destroyed many coastal communities, particularly in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures. (a) The measured heights of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami [22] and historical Sanriku earthquake tsunamis (1611, 1896 and 1933 events). These features implied that the 2011 earthquake was probably a combination of the 1896 Sanriku ‘tsunami earthquake’ and a Jogan-type deeper interplate earthquake [14]. Thanks to the recent advances of hand-held video cameras and mobile phones, however, many tsunami survivors have attempted to capture the moment of tsunami attack on their communities and have uploaded videos to the Internet (we should note that taking photos or videos of a tsunami should only ever be done from a position uphill, never from a beach). News. Nevertheless, ports were pounded by the tsunami and the airport in Sendai was inundated. Figure 2 illustrates the measured tsunami inundation and run-up heights by the survey team, with plots of historical tsunami heights of the 1611 Keicho Sanriku, 1896 Meiji Sanriku, and 1933 Showa Sanriku earthquake tsunamis [24]. The tsunami run-up height reached up to 40 m in Iwate prefecture. The contents of the warning were classified into three categories, according to the estimation of tsunami height: ‘Major tsunami’ (estimated more than 3 m), ‘Tsunami’ (estimated 1 or 2 m) and ‘Advisory’ (0.5 m or less). A tsunami is caused by an earthquake that occurs under the sea and plate cause the sea to jump up causing a massive wave. Revisiting the modern histories of Tohoku tsunami disasters and pre-2011 tsunami countermeasures, we clarified how Japan's coastal communities have prepared for tsunamis. That Japan was not adequately prepared for the tsunami that hit the northeastern Honshu coast on March 11, 2011, first became apparent at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. However, note that the tsunami (the 2011 scenario) will overtop even a 7.2 m seawall (designed for Level 1 tsunami) and the 6 m elevated road, and the model assumes no destruction of structures. Several nuclear power plant facilities were affected by the strong ground motions and great tsunamis: the Tokai, Higashi Dori, Onagawa and Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni plants. The analysis revealed that Sendai city's multiple protection measures for Level 2 tsunami will contribute to a substantial reduction of the tsunami inundation zone and potential losses, combined with an effective tsunami evacuation plan. Japan’s 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami: Economic Effects and Implications for the U.S. Congressional Research Service Summary The March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami that occurred in Japan followed by the nuclear crisis are having a large negative impact on the economy of Japan but a lesser effect on world trade and Figure 1. Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Japan’s 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami: Food and Agriculture Implications Renée Johnson Specialist in Agricultural Policy May 18, 2011 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41766 . 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