Population density was unrelated to dietary niche breadth across island and mainland populations. Shioya et al. The Fagaceae includes many acorn-producing tree species (e.g., the oaks, Quercus), but, around the study area, Q. crispula is the only species of Fagaceae represented. 10–20 and 20–50 g, respectively (Ohdachi et al. To amplify the trnL in PCR, we followed methods in Taberlet et al. Suzuki, H., M. G.Filippucci, G. N.Chelomina, J. J.Sato, K.Serizawa, and E. Nevo. Although niche partitioning has been examined extensively, newly developed molecular techniques bring the opportunity for finer-scale resolution of resource use. Recently, researchers have used DNA barcoding (Kartzinel et al. %PDF-1.6 %���� Vertical habitat segregation has been reported for the semiarboreal A. argenteus and terrestrial A. speciosus (Sekijima 1993). 2010, 2013; Nakahara et al. 2005), only blast hit sequences with E-values less than 1.0e-10 were included as data for the analyses below. Acrobat Distiller 10.0.0 (Windows) Violle, C., D. R.Nemergut, Z.Pu, and L. Jiang. The study site is located in a mixed forest of conifers and broad-leaved trees. 70% (865/1,247) of total reads for Rutaceae (Supplementary Data SD3) came from 1 A. argenteus individual collected in September (TN340, JSFD262), and ca. The numbers of reads for these 3 sequences were 8,051 and 2,772 for A. argenteus and A. speciosus, respectively (Supplementary Data SD3), and were identical apart from differences in length. Species coexistence is thought to be facilitated by niche partitioning of resources such as habitat or diet, which may reduce competitive interactions in an organismal community (HilleRisLambers et al. 4. (2017) showed that the acorn production in the previous year had a positive effect on the population abundance of A. speciosus , while that effect was much less for A. argenteus (see also … Since A. argenteus is semiarboreal, whereas A. speciosus is terrestrial, their use of space is partly segregated despite that they occur sympatrically (Doi and Iwamoto 1982; Sekijima 1993). We are grateful to Y. Akimoto, A. Akimoto, R. Onodera, and H. Wakabayashi for their assistance with fieldwork to capture mice and collect fecal samples, and the staff of the Uryu Experimental Forest, Hokkaido University, for providing support for the field investigation. We combined data on foraging behavior, available prey, and observed diets of five coexisting species of … We detected 51 trnL sequences for possible dietary plant taxa (26 families), excluding the unreliable sequence based on the criteria described above. These results suggest that A. argenteus and A. speciosus partition themselves by adopting a generalist and a specialist strategy, respectively. Yang Chang. Food items identified are listed in Table 1. Therefore, cow has to compromise from her body for the nutrients to achieve peak milk yield during early lactation. Niche overlap between A. argenteus and A. speciosus based on the total diet was 0.672. Therefore, dietary profiles for these species remain to be fully determined, and consequently, niche partitioning according to a fine-scale resolution of diet has not been demonstrated. We applied the conventional phenol–chloroform method (Sambrook and Russell 2001) to isolate genomic DNA from fecal samples that had been preserved in a −80°C freezer until DNA extraction. Taberlet, P., E.Coissac, F.Pompanon, C.Brochmann, and E. Willerslev. c Numbers of occurrence among the Apodemus individuals that ate dietary items that could be assigned to genus or species. De Cáceres, M., D. Sol, O. Lapiedra, and P. Legendre. 2015), they could represent valuable ecological model organisms for understanding universal mechanisms in niche partitioning, community assembly, and species coexistence. Valentini, A., F.Pompanon, and P. Taberlet. Dietary niche breadth was unrelated to competitor and predator richness, on both islands and the mainland. Using the program Blast2go (biobam—Conesa et al. Cardillo, M., J. L. Gittleman, and A. Purvis. 2 and 3). 2 and 3). In particular, the abundance of food items is an important consideration for species coexistence and niche segregation (Soininen et al. Therefore, dietary profiles for these species remain to be fully determined, and consequently, niche partitioning according to a fine-scale resolution of diet has not been demonstrated. Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resource Conservation and Utilization, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China . 2007). 2007). White circle with a solid black line indicates the Uryu Experimental Forest, Hokkaido University, in Horokanai, Hokkaido. Due to depleting body stores during early lactation, dairy c… www.pnas.org 3) The pattern based on single-year data provided by this study should be confirmed by studies with multiple years to analyze annual variation of the diets of these wood mice. For decades, biologists have sought to understand how diverse assemblages of large mammalian herbivores (LMH) partition food resources. Detailed information about the obtained samples is summarized in Supplementary Data SD1. It is, however, also true that special carefulness is necessary for the quantitative interpretations of sequence reads (Deagle et al. 2; Supplementary Data SD4; Alnus sp. <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Thumb 78 0 R/Type/Page>> Supplementary Data SD4.—Correspondence among top BLAST hit genera, species in the study area, possible diet species, and plant types of identified taxa. Although they are congeneric, the divergence time between these 2 species was estimated to be quite old among the Japanese mammals, providing an example of the phylogenetic dispersion (ca. In this study we aimed to improve our understanding of species coexistence. Stable isotope evidence for changes in dietary niche partitioning among hadrosaurian and ceratopsian dinosaurs of the Hell Creek Formation, North Dakota Henry C. Fricke and Dean A. Pearson Abstract.-Questions related to dinosaur behavior can be difficult to answer conclusively by using morphological studies alone. Plant diets of 2 sympatric species of wood mice in Japan (Apodemus argenteus and A. speciosus) were determined by DNA meta-barcoding analyses of feces using the nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast trnL P6 loop intron region as a molecular marker. Razgour et al. 1988), and show hoarding behavior of acorns before winter (Miyaki and Kikuzawa 1988; Sone et al. Generally, the result from the number of reads was consistent with that from the binary occurrences except for some differences observed for Rutaceae and Urticaceae (see “Discussion” for the reason of these differences; Figs. Looking into the origin of reads, ca. Monthly difference of dietary profiles of Apodemus argenteus (Aar) and A. speciosus (Asp) based on the proportion of the binary occurrence data (upper) and the proportion of the number of reads obtained from the analyses of the Ion PGM next generation sequencer (lower). Our results demonstrate the role of dietary niche partitioning in bear and wolf coexistence, and that caribou may be primary prey for wolves in an ecosystem with relatively high moose abundance and low human development. A total of 89,239 reads were obtained from the fecal samples, with 73,725 reads taken into consideration for the following analyses (47,036 and 26,689 reads for A. argenteus and A. speciosus, respectively; Supplementary Data SD3), excluding taxa based on the criteria above. (2015) suggested. 2015). Data from proportions of occurrences and Ion PGM reads both showed seasonal changes in the dietary components of both Apodemus species (Fig. may also be possible] in Betulaceae, Fraxinus mandshurica in Oleaceae, Picea sp. De León, L. F., J.Podos, T.Gardezi, A.Herrel, and A. P. Hendry. An advantage of the NGS meta-barcoding analysis compared with traditional methods lies in the higher sensitivity for the detection of minor dietary components. 2009; Ando et al. To reduce the possibility of false positive by including unreliable reads in the analyses, we excluded the blast hit species represented by less than 10 reads. The niche breadth of A. speciosus varied seasonally (Fig. Emrich, M. A., E. L.Clare, W. O.Symondson, S. E.Koenig, and M. B. Fenton. 2006; Onodera et al. Considering that the 2 Apodemus species are distributed in sympatry throughout the Japanese islands from the northern subarctic to southern temperate humid climates (Ohdachi et al. <> We characterize the diet, potential dietary niche overlap and prey preference of a large African carnivore guild on small fenced protected areas. endobj See Supplementary Data SD1 for concentration and purity of the isolated DNA. The prevalence of phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC) in nature is still a conflicting issue. The results suggested that A. argenteus is a generalist feeder, and A. speciosus a specialist, and the 2 Apodemus species separate their dietary niches not only by the component plant species overall, but also by differences within seasons. <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/Properties<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Thumb 36 0 R/Type/Page>> 2015; Supplementary Data SD1). 2007; Onodera et al. 2015; Nakahara et al. d Species or genus in the same family exclusively existing in the study area are shown. 2021-01-08T19:18:22-08:00 A long-term assessment of the diets is needed for deeper understanding of the coexistence mechanism of the 2 Apodemus species. Reads ( deagle et al Q. crispula is unable to meet out production requirements though intake using BLAST, performed! Ion OneTouch 2 ( ThermoFisher Scientific, Tokyo, Japan ) to assess forest fragmentations island... Promote the coexistence of ecologically similar species captured part of the Ion PGM sequencing.. 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